ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL OF A COLLECTION OF F1 WATERMELON HYBRIDS BY PRODUCTIVE INDICATORS AND VEGETATIVE PERIOD
The aim. To select highly adaptable raw material of watermelon according to the main productive indicators (yield, average weight of marketable fruit) and duration of the growing season for further use in the selection process. The object – a collection of 17 F1 watermelon hybrids from eight countries of the world (Ukraine, Denmark, France, USA, Russia, China, Korea and Holland). Methods. General scientific, measuring and weighing, calculating, statistical. Results. The study of the adaptive potential of the collection of F1 watermelon hybrids was carried out according to the following characteristics: total and marketable productivity, the average weight of the marketable fruit and the period from germination to maturity. Determined: Vi - general adaptive capacity (GAC), ó2ÑÀÑi - specific adaptive capacity (SAC), Sgi - genotype stability, bi - coefficient of regression of the genotype's response to changing conditions (plasticity), SCGi - selection value of the genotype of the collection of F1 watermelon hybrids. Research has established the amplitude and range of variation in the signs of productivity and duration of the growing season. According to the general yield, samples with a high general adaptability, 4 hybrids with a low value of the specific adaptability indic ator (one of which has a consistently high level of productivity) and 3 with a high adaptability of the genotype to various growing conditions were selected as the most stable. 2 hybrids with high breeding value were selected according to the "total productivity" feature. The analysis of the results of the research on the basis of "marketable productivity" made it possible to identify 3 samples with high adaptive capacity and 2 samples with high indicators of stability (stable average level of productivity).According to the breeding value of the genotype, 3 hybrids had high indicators, higher than the standard, according to the commercial yield. For breeding work, 2 hybrids were selected for fruit mass based on general adaptability. According to the stability of the characteristic "average mass of marketable fruit", 2 hybrids were selected. According to the breeding value of the genotype, 4 hybrids had high indicators for the trait average fruit weight. The average duration of the growing season in 2018 was 82 days, in 2019 it was 74 days, and in 2020 it was 87 days, on average for 3 years – 81 days. For selection work for early ripening, stable samples are valuable, in which the duration of the period "seedlings - ripening" on average over 3 years did not exceed 75 days. According to the breeding value of the genotype, 3 hybrids had high indicators in terms of the length of the "seedlingripening" period. Conclusions. The adaptive capacity of the collection of F1 watermelon hybrids was determined. For breeding work on various traits, samples with high general adaptive capacity (GAC) are of practical value, 3 hybrids were selected (by total yield), 3 (by marketable yield), 2 (by average mass of marketable fruit). According to stability indicators, one hybrid with a consistently high total yield was selected; 2 hybrids with stable average commercial productivity; 2 hybrids with a stable average weight of marketable fruit. According to the regression coefficient, watermelon hybrids were divided into low, medium and high ecological plasticity. Hybrids of the intensive type with an increased reaction to growing conditions: in terms of total yield - 8; by commercial productivity – 7; according to the average weight of marketable fruit - 6 samples. Hybrids with an average level of ecological plasticity: in terms of total productivity – 4; by commercial productivity – 3; according to the average weight of marketable fruit - 6 samples. Highly plastic, which to a small extent react to changes in growing conditions: in terms of total productivity - 4; by commercial yield – 6; according to the average weight of marketable fruit - 4 samples. According to the breeding value of the genotype, the following were selected: according to the trait, the total yield of 2 hybrids; according to the commercial productivity of 3 hybrids; according to the sign, the average weight of marketable fruit is 4; according to the sign, the duration of the growing season is 3.
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