THE CURRENT STATE OF POST-HARVEST TREATMENTS TO MAINTAIN QUALITY AND REDUCE LOSSES OF FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
Goal. Analyze the current state of post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables in order to reduce losses during storage. Results. Analysis of modern domestic and foreign scientific and patent literature shows that to maintain the quality of fresh products with high nutritional value and compliance with safety standards of fresh vegetables and fruits can be used various post-harvest physical, chemical and gas treatments. These post-harvest treatments are usually combined with proper storage temperature control. This article discusses the current state of post-harvest treatments and new technologies that can be used to maintain quality and reduce losses of fresh produce. Heat treatment is an alternative to fungicides. The beneficial effects of heat treatment are due to changes in physiological processes, such as reducing hypothermia and slowing down the maturation process due to thermal inactivation of degrading enzymes. Applying edible coatings to fresh vegetables and fruits provides a partial barrier to the movement of moisture on the surface of fresh food, thereby minimizing moisture loss during post-harvest storage. Irradiation inhibits cell proliferation, irradiation can neutralize pests and food safety problems. Solutions based on organic acid, ascorbic acid and calcium were used mainly to slow enzymatic and non-enzymatic darkening, deterioration of texture and growth of microbes of fresh products. SO2 technology has also been tested to control post-harvest rot of other fruits, such as lychee, fig, banana, lemon or apple. ethylene treatment plays a key role in maintaining the post-harvest period of life and quality of fruit and vegetable products in both menopausal and nonmenopausal conditions. Conclusions. Specific processing methods can only be applied to certain types of vegetables and fruits and types of spoilage. It is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of existing treatments in relation to emerging quality problems. Post-harvest treatments in combination with proper temperature control are the basis for maintaining physical, nutritional and sensory properties, as well as by reducing the likelihood of rot. They can be supplemented with chlorine, SO2, irradiation, treatment with hot water, hot air, antimicrobial agents and food coatings depending on the specific product. New technologies include post - harvest technologies based on ethylene oxidation, ethylene inhibitory action and maturation modulators such as NO.
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