• Y. N. Syromyatnikov Institute of Vegetable and Melons growing of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine
  • O. F. Mozgovskyi Institute of Vegetable and Melons growing of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine
  • O. V. Kutz Institute of Vegetable and Melons growing of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine
  • T. V. Paramonova Institute of Vegetable and Melons growing of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine
  • V. I. Mykhailyn Institute of Vegetable and Melons growing of National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine
  • N. V. Huliak National Academy of Agricultural Sciences of Ukraine
Keywords: penetrometer, penetration resistance, soil density, vegetable plants


The aim. Was to measure and compare the penetration resistance to depths in areas with continuous traditional tillage before starting work to restore its optimal physical and hydrological character istics after degradation and determine the depth at which the soil was sufficiently dense and required additional treatment. Methods. Field, laboratory, calculation and analytical. Results. The results of research to determine the resistance to penetration into the soil in the vegetable-fodder crop rotation in the experimental field with continuous traditional tillage were presented. Using the DATAFIELD handheld conical GPS penetrometer, the boundaries of the experimental field were determined, a computer map of the experimental field was compiled to automatically create a «grid» of plot sizes according to the field stationary experiment plan, replicate and two-dimensional mapping. The constituent parameters of soil density were determined, which depended on the geometry of the working body (cone) and the force of the applied load, and were a function of several fundamental factors. The readings of the device made it possible to determine the level of compaction and resistance to root growth, quantitative assessment of soil density, traction resistance of the working bodies of tillage implements and agronomic requirements for them. Conclusions. A range of root penetration resistance indices was obtained. They varied from values slightly more than 20 kg/cm2 to values no more than 30–40 kg/cm2, harmful, slowing down the growth and functioning of plants. With the value of resistance to penetration into the soil above 40 kg/cm2, the damage from compaction for soil fertility was obvious. It was studied that the soil in the experimental field was compacted; even the upper layers (0–15 cm) of the soil of the experimental field had a compacted structure (from 0.06 to 34.46 kg/cm2) and increased with depth, indicating physical and hydrological degradation. It was noted that for plants in the field of irrigated vegetablefodder crop rotation (tomato, white cabbage, beet) the use of fertilizer systems with a combination of green manure and a complex of microbial drugs, as well as organic and organic and mineral systems using high rates of organic fertilizers (21 t/ha of crop rotation area), provided the formation of a critical level of soil compaction from deeper horizons (for growing tomatoes – from a depth of 22.5 cm, white cabbage – 37.5 cm, beets – 37.5–42.5 cm).


Alkroosh, I. et al. (2021). Effect of Sand Percentage on the Compaction Properties and Undrained Shear Strength of Low Plasticity Clay. Аro-the scientif ic journal of Koya university. 9 (1), 16-20 [in English].

Carbonell-Bojollo, R.M., Friedrich, T., Derpsch, R. (2021). Global Spread of Conservation Agriculture for Enhancing Soil Organic Matter, Soil. Soil Organic Matter and Feeding the Future: Environmental and Agronomic Impacts. 4, 91-126 [in English].

Cerdà, A. et al. (2021). Long-term monitoring of soil bulk density and erosion rates in two Prunus Persica (L) plantations under flood irrigation and glyphosate herbicide treatment in La Ribera district, Spain. Journal of Environmental Management. 282, 111965 [in English].

Correa, J. et al. (2019). Soil compaction and the architectural plasticity of root systems. Journal of experimental botany. 70 (21), 6019-6034 [in English].

DSTU B B.2.1-17: 2009 Soils. Methods of laboratory determination of physical properties. Kyiv: Ministry of Regional Development of Ukraine, 2010. 32 р. [in English].

Evans, R. (2017). Factors controlling soil erosion and runoff and their impacts in the upper Wissey catchment, Norfolk, England: A ten year monitoring programme. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 42 (14), 2266-2279 [in English].

Froehlich, H.A., Miles, D.W.R., Robbins R.W. (1985). Soil bulk density recovery on compacted skid trails in central Idaho. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 49 (4), 1015-1017 [in English].

Joshi, R. (2017). Physical constraints of fine textured heavy soils and their management-A review. Agricultural Reviews. 38(3), 216-222 [in English].

Hernández, T.D.B. et al. (2019). Assessment of long-term tillage practices on physical properties of two Ohio soils. Soil and Tillage Research. 186, 270-279 [in English].

Huang, X., Horn, R., Ren, T. (2022). Soil structure effects on deformation, pore water pressure, and consequences for air permeability during compaction and subsequent shearing. Geoderma. 406, 115452 [in English].

Kutz, O.V. (2017). Microbiological activity of soil under different systems of optimization of tomato plant nutrition. Vegetable and Melon Growing. 63, 185-193 [in English].

Kutz, O.V., Terеkhina, L.A., Mozgovskyi, O.F. (2015). Microbiological activity of soil under alternative fertilization systems for late-ripe white cabbage. Scientif ic works of the Institute of Bioenergy Crops and Sugar Beets. 23, 149-153 [in English].

Li, D.Q., Wang, J., Rui, R. (2021). Effects of specimen preparation method and strain rate on the mechanical responses of a clayey loess. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 14 (23), 1-13 [in English].

Manik, S.M. et al. (2019). Soil and crop management practices to minimize the impact of waterlogging on crop productivity. Frontiers in plant science. 10, 140 [in English].

Medvedev, V.V. (2009). Soil penetration resistance and penetrographs in studies of tillage technologies. Eurasian Soil Science. 42 (3), 299-309. [in English].

Medvedev, V.V., Plysko, I.V. (2016). Spatial heterogeneity of physical properties of the soils in Ukraine. Agricultural science and practice. 1, 3-16 [in English].

Morales-Olmedo, M.G. et al. (2021). Full-field characterization of sweet cherry rootstocks: responses to soil with different air-filled porosities. Plant and Soil. 1-17 [in English].

Moreno-Maroto, J.M., Alonso-Azcárate, J., O’Kelly, B.C. (2021). Review and critical examination of fine-grained soil classification systems based on plasticity. Applied Clay Science. 200, 105955 [in English].

Pashchenko, V.F., Syromyatnikov, Y. (2017). Influence of local loosening of soil on soybean yield. Grain crops. 1(2), 329 [in English].

Pashchenko, V.F. et al. (2019). The influence of local loosening of the soil on soybean productivity. Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 5, 79-86 [in English].

Pierce, F.J., Lal, R. (2017). Monitoring the impact of soil erosion on crop productivity. Soil erosion research methods. Routledge. 235-263 [in English].

Priori, S. et al. (2021). Soil Physical-Hydrological Degradation in the Root-Zone of Tree Crops: Problems and Solutions. Agronomy. 11(1), 68 [in English].

Pulido-Moncada, M. et al. (2020). Residual effects of compaction on the subsoil pore system. – A functional perspective. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 84 (3). 717-730 [in English].

Reichert, J.M. et al. (2018). Compressibility and elasticity of subtropical no-till soils varying in granulometry organic matter, bulk density and moisture. Catena. 165, 345-357 [in English].

Romaneckas, K. et al. (2015). The main physical properties of planosol in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation under different long-term reduced tillage practices in the Baltic region. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 14 (7), 1309-1320 [in English].

Rouabhi, A. et al. (2018). What Are The Factors Affecting No-Till Adoption In The Farming System Of Sétif Province In Algeria? Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology. 6 (6), 636-641 [in English].

Ruehlmann, J. (2020). Soil particle density as affected by soil texture and soil organic matter: 1. Partitioning of SOM in conceptional fractions and derivation of a variable SOC to SOM conversion factor. Geoderma. 375, 114542 [in English].

Ryken, N. et al. (2018). Soil erosion rates under different tillage practices in central Belgium: New perspectives from a combined approach of rainfall simulations and 7Be measurements. Soil and Tillage Research. 179, 29-37 [in English].

Shaheb, M.R., Venkatesh, R., Shearer, S.A. (2021). A Review on the Effect of Soil Compaction and its Management for Sustainable Crop Production. Journal of Biosystems Engineering. 1-23 [in English].

Sudduth, K.A., Hummel, J.W., Drummond, S. T. (2004). Comparison of the Veris Profiler 3000 to an ASAE-standard penetrometer. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 20 (5), 535 [in English].

Syromyatnikov, Y.N. (2017). Ways to reduce the specific pressure of wheel propellers on the soil. Agriculture. 4, 95-103 [in English].

Syromyatnikov, Y. (2019). Influence of local loosening of the soil on the yield of soybeans. Ştiinţa Agricolă. 1, 117-124 [in English].

Syromyatnikov Y. (2019). Design parameters of the rotor of the tillage loosening and separating machine. Agriculture. 2, 7-27 [in English].

Syromyatnikov, Y. (2020). Substantiation of the parameters of the flat-cutting share for loosening the soil during its layer-by-layer processing. Altai State Agrarian University Bulletin. 3, 163-170 [in English].

Syromyatnikov Y. et al. (2021). Productivity of tillage loosening and separating machines in an aggregate with tractors of various capacities. Journal of Terramechanics. 98, 1-6 [in English].

Syromyatnikov, Y. (2021). Substantiation of the parameters of the cultivator of the cultivator of the stratifier. Engineering technologies and systems. 31 (2), 257-273 [in English].

Villeneuve, F. et al. (2020). Carrot physiological disorders and crop adaptation to stress. Carrots in Related Apiaceae Crops. Wallingford, Cabi. 156-170 [in English].

Webb, R.H. (2002). Recovery of severely compacted soils in the Mojave Desert, California, USA. Arid Land Research and Management. 16 (3), 291-305 [in English].

Yue, L. et al. (2021). Impacts of soil compaction and historical soybean variety growth on soil macropore structure. Soil and Tillage Research. 214, 105166 [in English].

How to Cite
Syromyatnikov, Y., Mozgovskyi, O., Kutz, O., Paramonova, T., Mykhailyn, V., & Huliak, N. (2022). INFLUENCE OF CONSTANT TRADITIONAL SOIL TREATMENT IN VEGETABLE-FODDER CROP ROTATION ON DENSITY OF BLACK SOIL. Vegetable and Melon Growing, (70), 66-79.

Most read articles by the same author(s)