INFLUENCE OF CONSTANT TRADITIONAL SOIL TREATMENT IN VEGETABLE-FODDER CROP ROTATION ON DENSITY OF BLACK SOIL
The aim. Was to measure and compare the penetration resistance to depths in areas with continuous traditional tillage before starting work to restore its optimal physical and hydrological character istics after degradation and determine the depth at which the soil was sufficiently dense and required additional treatment. Methods. Field, laboratory, calculation and analytical. Results. The results of research to determine the resistance to penetration into the soil in the vegetable-fodder crop rotation in the experimental field with continuous traditional tillage were presented. Using the DATAFIELD handheld conical GPS penetrometer, the boundaries of the experimental field were determined, a computer map of the experimental field was compiled to automatically create a «grid» of plot sizes according to the field stationary experiment plan, replicate and two-dimensional mapping. The constituent parameters of soil density were determined, which depended on the geometry of the working body (cone) and the force of the applied load, and were a function of several fundamental factors. The readings of the device made it possible to determine the level of compaction and resistance to root growth, quantitative assessment of soil density, traction resistance of the working bodies of tillage implements and agronomic requirements for them. Conclusions. A range of root penetration resistance indices was obtained. They varied from values slightly more than 20 kg/cm2 to values no more than 30–40 kg/cm2, harmful, slowing down the growth and functioning of plants. With the value of resistance to penetration into the soil above 40 kg/cm2, the damage from compaction for soil fertility was obvious. It was studied that the soil in the experimental field was compacted; even the upper layers (0–15 cm) of the soil of the experimental field had a compacted structure (from 0.06 to 34.46 kg/cm2) and increased with depth, indicating physical and hydrological degradation. It was noted that for plants in the field of irrigated vegetablefodder crop rotation (tomato, white cabbage, beet) the use of fertilizer systems with a combination of green manure and a complex of microbial drugs, as well as organic and organic and mineral systems using high rates of organic fertilizers (21 t/ha of crop rotation area), provided the formation of a critical level of soil compaction from deeper horizons (for growing tomatoes – from a depth of 22.5 cm, white cabbage – 37.5 cm, beets – 37.5–42.5 cm).
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