ADAPTABILITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TOMATO VARIETIES IN THE FOREST-STEPPE OF UKRAINE
Abstract. The expansion of the assortment of vegetable plants allows to increase the variety and production of domestic vegetable products, in particular, tomatoes. The article examines and proves the research results that the variety significantly affects the formation of tomato productivity and can minimize the negative impact of environmental factors. The purpose. The aim of the research was to study the agrobiological features of crop formation of different varieties of tomato. Methods. Experimental studies were carried out in 2018–2020. On the experimental field of the Uman NUS. The main research methods are used in the work: analysis and comparison, experimental, calculated. We studied tomato varieties of Ukrainian selection Lahidnyi (control), Anita, Aisan, Vulkan, Geyser, Daruna, Classic, Liubymyi, Myroliubivskyi, Oberih, Udav, Fizuma, Khoriv, Chudo. Results. Comparison of the number of generative organs of plants showed that during the growing season a larger number of brushes was formed on plants of the Horeb variety – 23.1 pcs/plant, which exceeded the control – 20.8 pcs/plant. The highest yields were found in the varieties Vulkan and Khoriv – 63.0 t/ha, as well as Miracle – 62.8 t/ha, which significantly exceeded the control – 56.0 t/ha. The Daruna variety approached this indicator and had a yield of 56.9 t/ha. In varieties Anita and Oberig, the yield was lower than the control by 1.4–1.5 t/ha, in varieties Myroliubivskyi and Aisan – by 8.3–9.5 t/ha. The variety Oberig had high chemical indicators, the fruits of which accumulated 6.2% of dry soluble substance versus 5.1% control Lahidnyi of sugar content, varieties Khoriv, Oberig and Myroliubivskyi prevailed – 3.4, 3.9 and 3.8%, respectively, which is significantly higher than the control. In terms of the amount of vitamin C, the varieties Oberig and Chudo were distinguished, in which a high sugar-acid coefficient was found – 9.4 compared to control (7.5). In varieties Khoriv and Myroliubivskyi, it was at the level of 5.6 and 5.8, respectively. Conclusion. Thus, as a result of research it was found that the most adaptive and productive are the varieties of tomato Chudo, Vulkan and Khoriv, with a yield of 62.8–63.0 t/ha and high biochemical composition.
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