FACTORS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION AND PROCESSING OF MUSHROOMS OF THE GENUS OYSTER MUSHROOM PLEUROTUS (FR.) P. KUMM

  • I. I. Bandura Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University
  • A.S. Kulyk Dmytro Motornyi Tavria State Agrotechnological University
  • О. V. Khareba National University of Life and Environmental Scienсes of Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7286-8437
  • V. V. Khareba National University of Life and Environmental Scienсes of Ukraine
  • Z. І. Kovtuniuk Uman National University of Horticulture
Keywords: mushroom processing, Pleurotus, biological efficiency, biochemical compounds, cultivation, biological maturity, cluster, fruiting body

Abstract

Mushrooms of the genus oyster mushroom Pleurotus (Fr.) P. Kumm are a source of biologically active substances, the functionality of which has been repeatedly confirmed by scientific research. Unfortunately, there are no data on the dynamics of changes in the biochemical composition during the ripening of fruit bodies. This data could determine the optimal harvest time and processing directions that would maximize the nutritional value of the mushroom raw material. On the other hand, for the efficient production and processing of these mushrooms, it is necessary to study the organoleptic characteristics of strains with high yields, as well as the technological features of their primary processing. The characteristics of 6 strains of oyster mushroom were studied, which belong to two types P. ostreatus (Fr.) P. Kumm and P. pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél, which were divided into two groups according to the optimum growing temperature: 12…16 °C – group A and 19…24 °C – group B. The most productive strains were identified in the groups: 2316 (A) with a biological efficiency index of 78.9% and 431 (B) – 78.4%. An organoleptic assessment of the fruit bodies was carried out after a five-minute heat treatment, as a result of which strains 2301 and Z (A) were isolated. They have a rich color and delicate texture of fruit bodies. Fruit bodies of strain 2314 (B) were distinguished by a bright mushroom aroma and pleasant taste. The coefficients of loss of mushroom raw materials were found at two stages of primary processing: inspection and blanching. It turned out that the losses during cleaning did not exceed 10%, but they had different values for the aggregates that were collected at the stage of technical and biological maturity. Inspection of intergrowths of strain 2314 (A) was carried out with minimal losses (1–2%). Blanching of mature fruiting bodies did not lead to a decrease in the mass of raw materials, whereas during heat treatment of mushrooms of technical maturity, losses amounted to 3 to 7%. The study of the biochemical composition of fruiting bodies at different stages of morphogenesis made it possible to reveal a tendency towards a decrease in the content of dry substances, proteins and an increase in the amount of ash elements in mature fruiting bodies in the studied strains.

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Published
2021-07-22
How to Cite
Bandura, I., Kulyk, A., KharebaО., Khareba, V., & Kovtuniuk, Z. (2021). FACTORS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF CULTIVATION AND PROCESSING OF MUSHROOMS OF THE GENUS OYSTER MUSHROOM PLEUROTUS (FR.) P. KUMM. Vegetable and Melon Growing, (69), 63-78. https://doi.org/10.32717/0131-0062-2021-69-63-78