BIOCHEMICAL METHOD OF EVALUATION OF PRE-SELECTION INITIAL FORMS AND CULTIVARS OF GARLIC FOR RESISTANCE TO FUNGAL DISEASES
Abstract. The main direction in the selection of garlic is the creation of high-yielding varieties that are resistant to common pests and diseases, frost-resistant and precocious and suitable for long-term storage in uncontrolled conditions. The purpose. Selection work primarily with garlic is aimed at expanding and improving methods of creating and evaluating the source material experimentally. The paper presents the results related to methodological approaches to the biochemical method of evaluation of cultivars and collection samples of winter garlic on a natural infectious background for resistance to fungal diseases. Methods. Field, laboratory, statistical and calculation-analytical methods were used for research. Results. As a result of visual diagnostics of winter garlic crops, it was found that the standard Sofiyivsky and promising samples № 1 and № 13 were characterized as the most resistant to rust and fusarium rot, where the rate of rust-affected plants ranged from 1.2 to 2.5% with the intensity of the disease on the leaves on average over the years of research 0.5–1 point. In terms of the number of plants affected by fusarium rot, the Sofiyivsky and samples № 1 and 13 had 0.5–1.0% of affected plants. Depending on the reproduction in terms of the intensity of damage to garlic plants by diseases, the most significant difference was observed
within one variety between reproductions. Thus, garlic plants, regardless of variety, in I–III reproductions were marked by minimal manifestation of disease, or no signs of disease at all, while in IV–V reproductions observed a higher intensity of damage and development of fungal diseases, due to reduced enzymatic activity and deterioration of physiological parameters of plants. Conclusion. In the course of statistical data processing, a linear relationship between the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the intensity of damage to garlic plants was revealed, where the inverse correlation index r = 0.51–0.90, and the index of approximation r2 = 0.56–0.81. As a result of the conducted researches, on the basis of results of a method of visual diagnostics, the method of enzymatic diagnostics is developed. The method is based on the dependence of the activity of antioxidant enzymes with the intensity of plant damage by rots and spots (the higher the enzymatic activity, the lower the level of damage intensity). The presented results, based on the data of the field experiment, are significant because the models presented in the materials can be used to model the selection process and/or its scheme.
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