PRESERVATION OF WINTER GARLIC DEPENDING ON THE WEATHER CONDITIONS OF THE VEGETATION PERIOD, VARIETY FEATURES AND PACKAGING METHOD
Goal. The purpose of the presented work was to improve the technology of storage of garlic bulbs by using a plastic insert in the box, determining the shelf life of garlic while maintaining its nutritional and medicinal properties, as well as reducing losses. Methods. General scientific: 1. method of hypotheses – drawing up schemes of experiments; 2. method of experiment – schemes of field and laboratory experiments; 3. method of analysis and synthesis – the formation of conclusions and generalizations, computational and analytical. Results. It is established that the safety of winter garlic depends on the varietal characteristics and method of storage. Over the years of research, the weight loss of winter garlic bulbs ranged from 4,9 to 7,6 % for 6 months of storage in an open box. Weight loss in garlic of Hungarian variety was 2,8 % lower than the control variant and amounted to 4,88 %, while in the variety Lyubasha – 5,50 %, which is 2,1 % less than the control. The use of polyethylene inserts in boxes reduces the weight loss of garlic bulbs by 2,0–3,2 % depending on varietal characteristics. After six months of storage of garlic in boxes with polyethylene inserts, the weight loss ranged from 4,4 % in the control version to 3,8 % in the Hungarian variety. Weight loss in the variety Lyubasha – were at the level of the control variant. Preservation of winter garlic depends on the weather conditions of the growing season. In our studies, the average temperature in June ranged from 21,6 oC. 2018 to 24,8 oC 2019, contributed to the maturation of the bulbs. The loss of bulb weight during storage was affected by the amount of precipitation at the end of the growing season. The coefficient of variation indicates that the weight loss of winter garlic during storage of the Hungarian variety is most dependent on weather conditions at the end of the growing season (June). Studies have established the structure of weight loss of winter garlic bulbs depending on varietal characteristics and method of storage After 6 months of storage, the loss due to dry matter ranged from 23,3 to 69,7 % of weight loss, while due to water evaporation ranged from 30,2 to 76,7 %, on average by varieties – 60,4 %, when stored in a box + ie investments, the structure of weight loss changes. On average, the varieties due to dry matter 59,7, water evaporation – 45,4 %. During storage, the loss of weight of winter garlic bulbs occur unevenly At the beginning of storage, August – September on average by variety is 1,1 %, September – October increases to 1,49 %, From November to February – 0,7 %, then begin to grow – 0,75 %. Based on the obtained results, a correlation analysis was performed and the linear dependence of the weight loss of winter garlic bulbs depending on the characteristics of the variety and storage method was established. On average, over the years of the study, the highest yield of marketable products after six months of storage of garlic in an open box at a temperature of –3… –1 ± 0,5 oC was observed in the variety Lyubash 80,1%. Which exceeded the control variant and the Hungarian variety by 2,7 and 1,1%, respectively. Conclusions. The yield of standard winter garlic products and the losses are inversely proportional, ie the greater the losses, the lower the yield of standard products.
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