PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF INDETERMINATE TYPE TOMATO HYBRIDS IN PLASTIC FILM GREENHOUSES
The aim of the research. To identify the features of the technology of growing and forming a crop of
tomatoes in greenhouses in film greenhouses in the spring; determine the morphological and biological variability of the vegetative and generative characteristics of tomato plants depending on the hybrid; establish the total performance of the studied hybrids; to evaluate and select, by product yield, a hybrid of indeterminate type tomatoes for growing in film greenhouses. Methods: field, statistical. Results. To the results of studies conducted in 2018-2019, it was found that single seedlings appear in hybrids with a difference of three days, and mass of two days after single. A single appearance of the first true leaf was noted 4-5 days after the general seedlings, and a mass appearance after 6-7 days. Plants in the flowering and fruiting phase had an average stem length of 295.1 cm in the control variant. The smallest length was observed in the Tobolsk F1 hybrid - 271.5 cm. All other hybrids were taller. The maximum average weight of one fetus is observed in the Matthias F1 hybrid - 133.5 g with an average number of fruits in the brush – 3 pcs, which is 25.3 g more than in the control variant. The minimum average weight of one fruit is observed in the Zulfiya F1 hybrid - 80.0 g with an average number of fruits in the brush – 4 pcs, which is 30.2 g less than the control variant. Due to more favorable weather conditions, a higher yield level was obtained in 2018 – by 0.4-0.8 kg / m2, compared with 2019. Conclusions. It is proved that the greenhouse conditions for growing vegetables have several advantages over open ground conditions. This consists in the fact that plants can be grown precisely at a temperature range that is most favorable for their growth and development. This simultaneously promotes active vegetation and protects plants from adverse weather conditions. An analysis of the data obtained in the study showed that, on average, in 2018-2019, the highest yield is characterized by plants of the tomato hybrid of Singor F1 – 16.3 kg / m2, and the smallest plant of the hybrid Ronda F1 – 13.5 kg / m2, in the control (Berberan hybrid F1) the yield was 14.3 kg / m2. To obtain the maximum possible level of fruit yield in the spring-summer cultivation in film greenhouses, the most suitable was the Syngora F1 hybrid, which had the highest yield among the studied ones - at the level of 15.9-16.6 kg / m2.
Bai, Y., Lindhout, P. (2007). Domestication and breeding of tomatoes: what have we gained and what can we gain in the future? Ann. Bot. 100, pp. 1085–1094. DOI:10.1093/aob/mcm150. [in English].
Barabash, O.Yu., Uchakin, A.P., Cych O.M. (2004) Tekhnolohiia vyrobnytstva ovochiv i plodiv. [Technology of production of vegetables and fruits] Kyiv: Vyshcha shkola. [in Ukrainian].
Bergougnoux, V. (2014). The history of tomato: from domestication to biopharming. Biotechnol. Adv. 32, pp. 170-189. DOI:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2013.11.003. [in English].
Bhattara,i K, Sharma, S, Panthee, DR (2018). Diversity among modern tomato genotypes at different levels in fresh-market breeding. International Journal of Agronomy, pp. 1-15. DOI:10.1155/2018/4170432. [in English].
Blanca, J., Montero-Pau, J., Sauvage, C., Bauchet, G., Illa, E., Díez, M. J., et al. (2015). Genomic variation in tomato, from wild ancestors to contemporary breeding accessions. BMC Genomics 16:257. DOI:10.1186/s12864-015-1444-1. [in English].
Bondarenko, G.L., Yakovenko, K.I. (Eds). (2001). Metodyka doslidnoi spravy v ovochivnytstvi i bashtannytstvi. [Methodology of experiments in the Vegetables and Melons], UAAN. In-t ovochivnyctva i bashtannyctva. 3-ie vyd., pererobl. i dopovn. Kharkiv: Osnova. [in Ukrainian].
Cook, E. (Ed.). (2018). Agriculture, forestry and fishery statistics. Publications Office of the European Union. Imprimeries Bietlot Frères in Belgium. ISSN 2363-2488 DOI:10.2785/340432. [in English].
De Pablo, Jaime, Perez-Mesa, Juan. (2004). The competitiveness of Spanish tomato export in the European Union, Span. J. Agric. Res., pp. 167-180. DOI:10.5424/sjar/2004022-71. [in English].
Derzhavnyi standart Ukrainy 3246-95. Tomatoes are fresh. Specifications. [State Standard 3246-95. Tomatoes are fresh. Specifications] (1996). Standartinform, Kyiv: dilnytsia operatyvnoho druku UkrNDISSI. [in Ukrainian].
Dospekhov, B.A. (1985). Metodika polevoho opyta (s osnovami statisticheskoi obrabotki rezultatov issledovaniy). [Field experiment methodology (with the basics of statistical processing of research results)] 5-e izd., dop. i pererab. Moscow: Agropromizdat. [in Russian].
Figàs, M.R., Prohens, J., Raigón, M.D., Pereira-Dias, L., Casanova, C., García-Martínez, M.D. … Soler, S. (2018). Insights into the adaptation to greenhouse cultivation of the traditional mediterranean long shelf-life tomato carrying the alc mutation: a multi-trait comparison of landraces, selections, and hybrids in open field and greenhouse. Front. Plant Sci. 9, 1774, pp. 1-16. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2018.01774. [in English].
Gavrish, S.F. (2015). Tomaty. [Tomatoes] Moscow: Veche. [in Russian].
Gyl, L.S., Pashkovskiy, A.Y., Sulima, L.T. (2011). Sovremennoe ovoshchevodstvo zakrytogo i otkrytogo grunta. Prakticheskoe rukovodstvo. [Modern vegetable growing indoor and outdoor. Practical guide] Zhytomyr: Ruta. [in Russian].
Yarovyi, G.I., Sievidov, V.P. (2016). Urozhainist ta produktyvnist hibrydiv ogirka vitchyznjanoi selekcii dlia vyroshchuvannia v plivkovykh teplytsiakh. [Productivity and productivity of domestic selection cucumber hybrids for growing in film greenhouses] Ovochivnyctvo i bashtannytstvo. V. 62, pp. 331-336. [in Ukrainian].
Leshhenko, L.O. (2015). Suchasnyj stan ta tendentsii rozvytku ovochivnytstva v Ukraini. [Current state and trends in vegetable development in Ukraine] Visnyk HNAU. Serija: Ekonomichni nauky, №3, pp. 317-324. [in Ukrainian].
Nyaku, S.T., Danquah, A. (Eds), (2019). Recent Advances in Tomato Breeding and Production, London: IntechOpen. DOI:10.5772/intechopen.70226. [in English].
Perez Dominguez, I., Gomez Barbero, M., Fellmann, T., Chatzopoulos, T., Jensen, H. And Philippidis, G. (2018). EU commodity market development: Medium-term agricultural outlook, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg. DOI:10.2760/4519. [in English].
Sievidova, I.O. (2013). Vplyv yakosti ovochevoi produktsii na konkurentospromozhnist ovochivnytstva. [The influence of the quality of vegetable products on the competitiveness of vegetable growing] Visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Ser : Ekonomika APK. № 20(1), pp. 302-306. [in Ukrainian].
Sych, Z.D., Fedosii, I.O., Podpriatov, G.I. (2010). Pisliazbyralni tekhnolohii dorobky ovochiv dlia lohistyky i marketynhu. [Post-harvest vegetable processing technologies for logistics and marketing] Kyiv. [in Ukrainian].