THE CHARACTERIZATIC OF GENOTYPES-INTRODUCED OF SWEET POTATOES (ІPOMOEA BATATAS L.) IN THE CONDITIONS OF GROWING AREA OF THE FOREST- STEPPE OF UKRAINE
The aim. To develop effective breeding technology for creating highly competitive and valuable sweet potato varieties with high biochemical parameters and which will be adapted to the agro-climatic conditions of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine. Methods. Field, laboratory, statistical, phenological. Studies were conducted during 2017-2019 in the laboratory of genetics, genetic resources and biotechnology of the Institute of Vegetable and Melons growing of the NAAS in open ground. The source material was 13 collection samples of sweet potato. The plants carried out phenological observations and biometric measurements according to the descriptor. Results. The main scientific approaches to breeding and seed production with a promising niche culture of sweet potatoes were presented. Were analyzed the current directions of breeding work and the principles of selection of source material. As a result of research, promising sweet potato genotypes for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine were identified, their economically valuable characteristics were determined. They presented a scheme of the selection process and seed production using a biotechnological link at the stage of propagation of sweet potato genotypes (Ipomoea batatas L.). The highest yield of sweet potato tubers was obtained for the dessert genotype D-2 (111.92 t/ha), with a marketability of 87.8%. The table variety V-6 also had a high yield (86.48 t/ha), and the marketability of tubers was 80.6%. Thus, the developed technology for planting sweet potato cuttings made it possible to obtain tubers with high yield and marketability of 90%. According to the variant of specific adaptive ability (CAЗi), which is more informative, since it is takes into account the compensation effect, samples V-6 and D-2 had better stability. Cunclusions. In the conditions of the Eastern Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, 13 varieties of sweet potato of foreign selection were evaluated. Found that the genotypes were very different in length of the growing season, the onset of phenophases, productivity. It was proved by static calculations that the best ratio of average yield and ecological plasticity was observed for samples V-6 (86.48 t/ha, bi = 1.04) and D-2 (111.92 t/ha, bi = 1.08 ) Based on the results of scientific work, applications were received for obtaining the variety Slobozhanskij rubin (clone selection from genotype V-6), application number (№19662003) and variety Admiral (clone selection from genotype D-2), application number (№19662004).
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