SPECTRUM OF GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY IN TOMATO VARIETIES IN PLANTS AFTER REUSABLE GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SEEDS
The aim of the research. Determine the rate of reaction of genomic mutabilities of plants of different directions of tomato varieties to multiple γ-irradiation of their seeds. Methods. Induced physical mutagenesis, biochemical evaluation of tomato fruit, settlement and analytical evaluation, statistical processing of the o btained results. Results. The level of mutation quality of quantitative and qualitative characteristics in plants of different varieties of tomato has been revealed on multiple γ-irradiation of their seeds. There are: 1) got plants with one-marker and multi-marker genes for their clear phenotypic manifestation; 2) plants with high indicators of economic and valuable characteristics (formation of high reproductive load of fetus, selection of mutant plants at high early maturity and low vegetation period, high productivity combined with high biochemical components in fetus) were obtained. Conclusions. Long-term studies on the physical mutagenesis of tomatoes have allowed to establish a differentiated rate of reaction of derivatives of mutant forms from varieties (by frequency of plants with bred fetus, early ripe plants, and also the length of the growing season). It depended on the genetic basis of the variety, the treatment option, the dose of γ-irradiation, and the location of the bunches on plants. Selected mutant forms with excessive levels of manifestation of valuable economic features compared with the original varieties. In addition, molds with one-marker genes were obtained - the sterility of pollen (gene ms), the change of vegetative organs - the potato type of the leaf (gene c) and the indeterminant type of the bush (gene sp +), the spotty color of the leaf surface (gene m-2), yellow color the fruit (gene r), the "golden" strips on the mature fetal epidermis (gene gs), the dirty-red color of the fetus (gene gf), the yellow coloration of the cotyledon (gene wv), etc. Also, in variety Eleonora with multimarketing genes: r, j2, u, sp +, c, aw, gs.
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