EVALUATION OF THE SEASON OF MUTAGENIC FACTORS TO CHANGE THE QUALITATIVE SIGNS, WHAT ARE DEFINING PHENOTYP OF LEAFS PLATE MUTANT PLANTS OF LEAF LETTUCE
The aim of the research. To determine the effect of mutagenic factors on the formation of qualitative traits that determine the phenotype of the leaf blade and conduct a comparative correlation analysis between the manifestation of qualitative and quantitative traits of mutant leaf lettuce genotypes. Methods. Nonparametric statistics, field estimations, calculative and analytical ones. Results. The peculiarities of the physical and chemical mutagenesis effect on the phenotypic manifestation of qualitative traits that determine the leaf blade morphology of leaf lettuce ware ascertained. The degree of discrepancy in the manifestation of qualitative traits is determined depending on the effect of the mutagenic factor between the initial forms and the mutant genotypes derived from them. Based on the correlation analysis, important linkages between the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the genotypes studied for the breeding process were established. The manifestation of the association of signs determining the phenotype of the leaf blade made it possible to distinguish two contrasting mutant samples in comparison with the original form ([Snizhinka (DMS, 6 h), mf-1] (K-7392 (1)) (rs = 0,43) and [Snizhinka (7 kP)] (K-7402) (rs = 0,31)). Conclusions. The studied correlation links make it possible to select highly productive genotypes of leaf lettuce in the early stages of plant ontogeny by association of qualitative traits that determine the phenotype of a leaf blade. Particularly useful is the established, statistically significant, correlation relationship between the integral indicator for the aggregate of qualitative characteristics "average index for the sample" and the level of quantitative traits "maximum leaf length" and "yield" (rs = -0.51 ... 0.49), which is important for identifying highly productive genotypes of leaf lettuce. Based on mutant samples of leaf lettuce, a new high-yielding cultivar Major ware created, which exceeded the grade-standard Snizhinka on a set of valuable quantitative traits. The yield of the new variety is 10.0 t/ha at 6.14 t/ha for the standard. The period from mass shoots to commercial ripeness in a new cultivar is 17 days, in a standard’s cultivar Snizhinka up to 23 days.
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